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Andy WarholAndy Warhol

Andy Warhol

Andy Warhol (Pittsburgh, 6 augustus 1928 — New York City, 22 februari 1987) was een Amerikaans kunstenaar, cineast en publicist. Warhol werkte tevens als muziekproducent en acteur. Vanuit zijn achtergrond en ervaring in de toegepaste kunst was Warhol één van de protagonisten van de Pop-art in de Verenigde Staten in de jaren 50 en 60 van de 20e eeuw.
Warhol heet de silver prince van de pop. Warhol is vooral beroemd om zijn 'vlakke' en contrastrijke schilderijen en zeefdrukken van verpakte producten en alledaagse objecten zoals Campbell's soepblikken, bloemen en de banaan op de cover van het album The Velvet Underground and Nico (1967), alsook voor zijn gestileerde portretten van 20e-eeuwse beroemdheden als Marilyn Monroe, Elvis Presley, Judy Garland, en Elizabeth Taylor.

Andy Warhol werd als Andrew Warhola geboren in Pittsburgh (Verenigde Staten).
Zijn ouders waren Ondrej (Andrew) Warhola en Júlia Justyna Zavacká, Slowaakse immigranten. Ondrej (wiens originele familienaam Varchola was, hij veranderde die naar Warhola toen hij naar de VS emigreerde) werkte in de kolenmijnen van Pennsylvania. Andy toonde reeds vroeg artistiek talent en ging toegepaste kunst studeren in Pittsburgh aan het Carnegie Institute of Technology, de tegenwoordige Carnegie Mellon University.
Daar viel hij op door het tekenen van twee zelfportretten waarop hij in zijn neus aan het peuteren was (Upper Torso Boy Picking Nose en Full Figure Boy Picking Nose).

In 1949 verhuisde Warhol naar New York, waar hij een carričre opbouwde in de reclame- en tijdschriftenwereld. In de jaren zestig startte Warhol met het op groot formaat schilderen van beroemde Amerikaanse producten als Campbell's soepblikken en Coca-Cola flessen.
Hij ging de zeefdruktechniek gebruiken, om niet louter kunst te maken met alledaagse commerciële massaproducten als motief, maar om zelfs zijn eigen kunst als massaproduct te creëren. Warhol wilde het liefst een emotieloze machine worden. Hij stelde zich op als chef van een team van kunstarbeiders die zich bezig hielden met het maken van zeefdrukken, films, boeken en tijdschriften.

Dit team was actief in een studio in de buurt van Union Square in New York. De studio werd the Factory genoemd omdat er werkelijk een productielijn van schilderijen in gehuisvest was. Deze studio groeide uit tot een ontmoetingsplaats voor artiesten, homo's, travestieten, junks en fotomodellen.
Iedereen met enige artistieke pretentie was er welkom. De oorspronkelijke "Factory" was gevestigd in een oude pettenfabriek op 231 East 47th street (vierde verdieping).

Na een aantal jaren verplaatste Andy Warhol zijn entourage naar een kantoorpand aan de overkant van de straat; 33 Union street West (zesde verdieping).
Deze tweede Factory werd door Warhol zelf the Office genoemd want er was niet uitsluitend een atelier gevestigd, maar ook de redactie van het door Warhol opgerichte blad Interview. Warhol werd in de jaren van de Factory wereldwijd bekend met zijn zeefdrukken. Hij maakte zeefdrukken van elk onderwerp dat zich ervoor leende.
Warhols oeuvre baseert zich grotendeels op de Amerikaanse populaire cultuur.

Hij schilderde en tekende bankbiljetten, stripafbeeldingen, voedsel, vrouwenschoenen, beroemdheden en alledaagse objecten. Voor hem vertegenwoordigden deze motieven de Amerikaanse culturele waarden.
Op 3 juni 1968 kwam Valerie Solanas, een radicaal feministisch auteur die van tijd tot tijd rondhing in de Factory, in de studio opdagen en schoot Warhol en Mario Amaya neer. Solanas was vroeger op die dag afgewezen in de Factory nadat ze een script had teruggevraagd dat ze aan Warhol ter inzage gegeven had. Het script was blijkbaar zoek geraakt.

Warhol werd zwaar verwond door de schietpartij en werd in het ziekenhuis zelfs klinisch dood verklaard. Hij leed voor de rest van zijn leven aan de fysieke gevolgen van de aanslag. Zo moest hij bijvoorbeeld steeds een korset dragen om zijn onderbuik te ondersteunen.
De schietpartij had een grote nawerking op Warhols leven en zijn kunst. De Factory werd strenger afgeschermd en voor velen betekende deze gebeurtenis het einde van de wilde jaren van de Factory.

Diezelfde dag gaf Solanas zichzelf aan bij de politie en werd ze gearresteerd.
Haar verklaring voor deze misdaad was dat Warhol te veel invloed op haar leven had gekregen. In vergelijking met Warhols provocerende werk in de jaren zestig waren de jaren zeventig artistiek gezien minder productief, hoewel Warhol veel zakelijker werd. Volgens zijn toenmalige assistent Bob Colacello zocht Warhol in die jaren vooral naar gefortuneerde mensen bij wie hij een portretopdracht in de wacht kon slepen, zoals Mick Jagger, Liza Minnelli, John Lennon, Diana Ross, Brigitte Bardot en Michael Jackson en ook minder bekende bankdirecteuren en verzamelaars.
Hij richtte het magazine Interview op en publiceerde in 1975 zijn boek The Philosophy of Andy Warhol, waarin hij zijn nuchtere ideeën omtrent kunst en leven uit de doeken deed.

Van hem zijn de volgende uitspraken bekend: "Geld verdienen is kunst, werken is kunst, en goede zaken doen is de allerbeste kunst". Warhol overleed op 22 februari 1987 om 6.
32 uur op 58-jarige leeftijd in New York City. Hij was herstellende van een routineoperatie aan zijn galblaas toen hij in zijn slaap stierf aan een hartstilstand. Het ziekenhuispersoneel had hem na de operatie slaapmiddelen toegediend en had zijn welbevinden onvoldoende gevolgd.

Daarom klaagden advocaten van Warhols nabestaanden het ziekenhuis aan wegens nalatigheid. Warhol had een medische behandeling almaar uitgesteld omdat hij bang was voor ziekenhuizen en een grote hekel had aan dokters. Warhol werd begraven op de katholieke begraafplaats van St.
John the Baptist Byzantine in Bethel Park, ten zuiden van Pittsburgh. Yoko Ono was een van de mensen die een afscheidsrede uitspraken op zijn begrafenis.

Het internationale veilinghuis Sotheby's had negen dagen nodig om Warhols immense verzameling van kunst en 'prullaria' te veilen.
De bruto-opbrengst van deze veiling was ca. 20 miljoen Amerikaanse dollar.

English version

Andrew Warhola (August 6, 1928 – February 22, 1987), known as Andy Warhol, was an American painter, printmaker, and filmmaker who was a leading figure in the visual art movement known as pop art. After a successful career as a commercial illustrator, Warhol became famous worldwide for his work as a painter, avant-garde filmmaker, record producer, author, and member of highly diverse social circles that included bohemian street people, distinguished intellectuals, Hollywood celebrities and wealthy patrons. Warhol has been the subject of numerous retrospective exhibitions, books, and feature and documentary films.
He coined the widely used expression "15 minutes of fame." In his hometown of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, The Andy Warhol Museum exists in memory of his life and artwork.

The highest price ever paid for a Warhol painting is $100 million for a 1963 canvas titled Eight Elvises.
The private transaction was reported in a 2009 article in The Economist, which described Warhol as the "bellwether of the art market." $100 million is a benchmark price that only Jackson Pollock, Pablo Picasso, Gustav Klimt and Willem de Kooning have achieved. Warhol's childhood home at 3252 Dawson Street in the South Oakland neighborhood of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Andy Warhol was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on August 6, 1928.
He was the fourth child of Ondrej Warhola (died 1942) and Julia (née Zavacka, 1892–1972), whose first child was born in their homeland and died before their move to the U.S. His parents were working-class emigrants from Mikó (now called Miková), in northeastern Slovakia, then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Warhol's father immigrated to the US in 1914, and his mother joined him in 1921, after the death of Andy Warhol's grandparents. Warhol's father worked in a coal mine. The family lived at 55 Beelen Street and later at 3252 Dawson Street in the Oakland neighborhood of Pittsburgh.

The family was Byzantine Catholic and attended St. John Chrysostom Byzantine Catholic Church. Andy Warhol had two older brothers, Ján and Pavol, who were born in today's Slovakia.
Pavol's son, James Warhola, became a successful children's book illustrator. In third grade, Warhol had chorea, the nervous system disease that causes involuntary movements of the extremities, which is believed to be a complication of scarlet fever and causes skin pigmentation blotchiness.

He became a hypochondriac, developing a fear of hospitals and doctors.
Often bed-ridden as a child, he became an outcast at school and bonded with his mother. At times when he was confined to bed, he drew, listened to the radio and collected pictures of movie stars around his bed. Warhol later described this period as very important in the development of his personality, skill-set and preferences.
When Warhol was 13, his father died in an accident.

Warhol showed early artistic talent and studied commercial art at the School of Fine Arts at Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (now Carnegie Mellon University). In 1949, he moved to New York City and began a career in magazine illustration and advertising.
During the 1950s, he gained fame for his whimsical ink drawings of shoe advertisements. These were done in a loose, blotted-ink style, and figured in some of his earliest showings at the Bodley Gallery in New York. With the concurrent rapid expansion of the record industry and the introduction of the vinyl record, Hi-Fi, and stereophonic recordings, RCA Records hired Warhol, along with another freelance artist, Sid Maurer, to design album covers and promotional materials.

His first one-man art-gallery exhibition as a fine artist was on July 9, 1962, in the Ferus Gallery of Los Angeles. The exhibition marked the West Coast debut of pop art. Andy Warhol's first New York solo pop exhibit was hosted at Eleanor Ward's Stable Gallery November 6–24, 1962.
The exhibit included the works Marilyn Diptych, 100 Soup Cans, 100 Coke Bottles and 100 Dollar Bills. At the Stable Gallery exhibit, the artist met for the first time John Giorno who would star in Warhol's first film, Sleep, in 1963.

It was during the 1960s that Warhol began to make paintings of iconic American products such as Campbell's Soup Cans and Coca-Cola bottles, as well as paintings of celebrities such as Marilyn Monroe, Elvis Presley, Troy Donahue, Muhammad Ali and Elizabeth Taylor.
He founded "The Factory," his studio during these years, and gathered around himself a wide range of artists, writers, musicians, and underground celebrities.

He began producing prints using the silkscreen method. His work became popular and controversial.
Among the imagery tackled by Warhol were dollar bills, celebrities and brand name products. He also used as imagery for his paintings newspaper headlines or photographs of mushroom clouds, electric chairs, and police dogs attacking civil rights protesters. Warhol also used Coca Cola bottles as subject matter for paintings.

He had this to say about Coca Cola: What's great about this country is that America started the tradition where the richest consumers buy essentially the same things as the poorest. You can be watching TV and see Coca-Cola, and you know that the President drinks Coca-Cola, Liz Taylor drinks Coca-Cola, and just think, you can drink Coca-Cola, too. A Coke is a Coke and no amount of money can get you a better coke than the one the bum on the corner is drinking.
All the cokes are the same and all the cokes are good. Liz Taylor knows it, the President knows it, the bum knows it, and you know it.

New York's Museum of Modern Art hosted a Symposium on pop art in December 1962 during which artists like Warhol were attacked for "capitulating" to consumerism.
Critics were scandalized by Warhol's open embrace of market culture. This symposium set the tone for Warhol's reception. Throughout the decade it became more and more clear that there had been a profound change in the culture of the art world, and that Warhol was at the center of that shift.
A pivotal event was the 1964 exhibit The American Supermarket, a show held in Paul Bianchini's Upper East Side gallery.

The show was presented as a typical U.S. small supermarket environment, except that everything in it – from the produce, canned goods, meat, posters on the wall, etc. – was created by six prominent pop artists of the time, among them the controversial (and like-minded) Billy Apple, Mary Inman, and Robert Watts. Warhol's painting of a can of Campbell's soup cost $1,500 while each autographed can sold for $6.

The exhibit was one of the first mass events that directly confronted the general public with both pop art and the perennial question of what art is (or of what is art and what is not). As an advertisement illustrator in the 1950s, Warhol used assistants to increase his productivity. Collaboration would remain a defining (and controversial) aspect of his working methods throughout his career; in the 1960s, however, this was particularly true.
One of the most important collaborators during this period was Gerard Malanga. Malanga assisted the artist with producing silkscreens, films, sculpture, and other works at "The Factory," Warhol's aluminum foil-and-silver-paint-lined studio on 47th Street (later moved to Broadway).

Other members of Warhol's Factory crowd included Freddie Herko, Ondine, Ronald Tavel, Mary Woronov, Billy Name, and Brigid Berlin (from whom he apparently got the idea to tape-record his phone conversations).
During the '60s, Warhol also groomed a retinue of bohemian eccentrics upon whom he bestowed the designation "Superstars", including Edie Sedgwick, Viva, Ultra Violet, and Candy Darling. These people all participated in the Factory films, and some – like Berlin – remained friends with Warhol until his death. Important figures in the New York underground art/cinema world, such as writer John Giorno and film-maker Jack Smith, also appear in Warhol films of the 1960s, revealing Warhol's connections to a diverse range of artistic scenes during this time.
On June 3, 1968, Valerie Solanas shot Warhol and art critic and curator Mario Amaya at Warhol's studio.

Before the shooting, Solanas had been a marginal figure in the Factory scene. S he founded a "group" called S.C.U.M.

(Society for Cutting Up Men) and authored the S.C.U.M. Manifesto, a separatist feminist attack on patriarchy.

Over the years, Solanas' manifesto has found a following.
Solanas appears in the 1968 Warhol film I, a Man. Earlier on the day of the attack, Solanas had been turned away from the Factory after asking for the return of a script she had given to Warhol. The script, apparently, had been misplaced.
Amaya received only minor injuries and was released from the hospital later the same day.

Warhol however, was seriously wounded by the attack and barely survived (surgeons opened his chest and massaged his heart to help stimulate its movement again). He suffered physical effects for the rest of his life.
The shooting had a profound effect on Warhol's life and art. Solanas was arrested the day after the assault. By way of explanation, she said that Warhol "had too much control over my life". She was eventually sentenced to three years under the control of the Department of Corrections. After the shooting, the Factory scene became much more tightly controlled, and for many the "Factory 60s" ended. The shooting was mostly overshadowed in the media due to the assassination of Robert F. Kennedy two days later. >p>Warhol had this to say about the attack: "Before I was shot, I always thought that I was more half-there than all-there – I always suspected that I was watching TV instead of living life.

People sometimes say that the way things happen in movies is unreal, but actually it's the way things happen in life that's unreal.
The movies make emotions look so strong and real, whereas when things really do happen to you, it's like watching television – you don't feel anything. Right when I was being shot and ever since, I knew that I was watching television. The channels switch, but it's all television.
" Compared to the success and scandal of Warhol's work in the 1960s, the 1970s were a much quieter decade, as Warhol became more entrepreneurial.

According to Bob Colacello, Warhol devoted much of his time to rounding up new, rich patrons for portrait commissions– including Shah of Iran Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, his wife Empress Farah Pahlavi, his sister Princess Ashraf Pahlavi, Mick Jagger, Liza Minnelli, John Lennon, Diana Ross, Brigitte Bardot, and Michael Jackson. Warhol's famous portrait of Chinese Communist leader Mao Zedong was created in 1973.
He also founded, with Gerard Malanga, Interview magazine, and published The Philosophy of Andy Warhol (1975). An idea expressed in the book: "Making money is art, and working is art and good business is the best art". Warhol used to socialize at various nightspots in New York City, including Max's Kansas City; and, later in the '70s, Studio 54.

He was generally regarded as quiet, shy, and a meticulous observer. Art critic Robert Hughes called him "the white mole of Union Square." Warhol had a re-emergence of critical and financial success in the 1980s, partially due to his affiliation and friendships with a number of prolific younger artists, who were dominating the "bull market" of '80s New York art: Jean-Michel Basquiat, Julian Schnabel, David Salle and other so-called Neo-Expressionists, as well as members of the Transavantgarde movement in Europe, including Francesco Clemente and Enzo Cucchi.
By this period, Warhol was being criticized for becoming merely a "business artist". In 1979, reviewers disliked his exhibits of portraits of 1970s personalities and celebrities, calling them superficial, facile and commercial, with no depth or indication of the significance of the subjects.

They also criticized his 1980 exhibit of 10 portraits at the Jewish Museum in New York, entitled Jewish Geniuses, which Warhol – who was uninterested in Judaism and Jews – had described in his diary as "They're going to sell.
" In hindsight, however, some critics have come to view Warhol's superficiality and commerciality as "the most brilliant mirror of our times," contending that "Warhol had captured something irresistible about the zeitgeist of American culture in the 1970s." Warhol also had an appreciation for intense Hollywood glamour. He once said: "I love Los Angeles. I love Hollywood.

They're so beautiful. Everything's plastic, but I love plastic. I want to be plastic". Warhol died in New York City at 6:32 a.m. on February 22, 1987.
According to news reports, he had been making good recovery from a routine gallbladder surgery at New York Hospital before dying in his sleep from a sudden post-operative cardiac arrhythmia. Prior to his diagnosis and operation, Warhol delayed having his recurring gallbladder problems checked, as he was afraid to enter hospitals and see doctors.
His family sued the hospital for inadequate care, saying that the arrhythmia was caused by improper care and water intoxication. Warhol's body was taken back to Pittsburgh by his brothers for burial.
The wake was at Thomas P. Kunsak Funeral Home and was an open-coffin ceremony. The coffin was a solid bronze casket with gold plated rails and white upholstery.
Warhol was dressed in a black cashmere suit, a paisley tie, a platinum wig, and sunglasses.

He was posed holding a small prayer book and a red rose. The funeral liturgy was held at the Holy Ghost Byzantine Catholic Church on Pittsburgh's North Side.
The eulogy was given by Monsignor Peter Tay. Yoko Ono also made an appearance. The coffin was covered with white roses and asparagus ferns.

After the liturgy, the coffin was driven to St. John the Baptist Byzantine Catholic Cemetery in Bethel Park, a south suburb of Pittsburgh. At the grave, the priest said a brief prayer and sprinkled holy water on the casket. Before the coffin was lowered, Paige Powell dropped a copy of Interview magazine, an Interview t-shirt, and a bottle of the Estee Lauder perfume "Beautiful" into the grave.

Warhol was buried next to his mother and father.
A memorial service was held in Manhattan for Warhol on April 1, 1987, at St. Patrick's Cathedral, New York.

Bron(o.m.):Wikipedia

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